The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission has issued final regulations that implement the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008. The law protects job applicants, current and former employees, labor union members, and apprentices and trainees from discrimination based on their genetic information.
Genetic monitoring.–The term “genetic monitoring” means the periodic examination of employees to evaluate acquired modifications to their genetic material, such as chromosomal damage or evidence of increased occurrence of mutations, that may have developed in the course of employment due to exposure to toxic substances in the workplace, in order to identify, evaluate, and respond to the effects of or control adverse environmental exposures in the workplace.
(6) Genetic services.–The term “genetic services” means–
(A) a genetic test;
(B) genetic counseling (including obtaining, interpreting, or assessing genetic information); or
(C) genetic education.
(7) Genetic test.–
(A) In general.–The term “genetic test” means an analysis of human DNA, RNA, chromosomes, proteins, or metabolites, that detects genotypes, mutations, or chromosomal changes.
(B) Exceptions.–The term “genetic test” does not mean an analysis of proteins or metabolites that does not detect genotypes, mutations, or chromosomal changes.
SEC. 202. EMPLOYER PRACTICES.
(a) Discrimination Based on Genetic Information.–It shall be an unlawful employment practice for an employer–
(1) to fail or refuse to hire, or to discharge, any employee, or otherwise to discriminate against any employee with respect to the compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment of the employee, because of genetic information with respect to the employee; or
(2) to limit, segregate, or classify the employees of the employer in any way that would deprive or tend to deprive any employee of employment opportunities or otherwise adversely affect the status of the employee as an employee, because of genetic information with respect to the employee.
(b) Acquisition of Genetic Information.–It shall be an unlawful employment practice for an employer to request, require, or purchase genetic information with respect to an employee or a family member of the employee except–
(1) where an employer inadvertently requests or requires family medical history of the employee or family member of the employee;
(A) health or genetic services are offered by the employer, including such services offered as part of a wellness program;
(B) the employee provides prior, knowing, voluntary, and written authorization;
(C) only the employee (or family member if the family member is receiving genetic services) and the licensed health care professional or board certified genetic counselor involved in providing such services receive individually identifiable information concerning the results of such services; and
(D) any individually identifiable genetic information provided under subparagraph (C) in connection with the services provided under subparagraph (A) is only available for purposes of such services and shall not be disclosed to the employer except in aggregate terms that do not disclose the identity of specific employees;
(3) where an employer requests or requires family medical history from the employee to comply with the certification provisions of section 103 of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (29 U.S.C. 2613) or such requirements under State family and medical leave laws;
(4) where an employer purchases documents that are commercially and publicly available (including newspapers, magazines, periodicals, and books, but not including medical databases or court records) that include family medical history;